Electoral College
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The Constitution of the United States (Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 and later revised by the Twelfth Amendment), established the Electoral College system, which apportioned electoral votes to states based on the number of Congressional Representatives and Senators each state has.
Congressional Representatives are apportioned by the population of each state but since every state has 2 Senators (regardless of population), this would give states with smaller populations a chance to compete with higher-populated states.
Let's see precisely how this works.
Let's compare 2 states only by the number of Representatives each has (which is based on population).
Comparing Wyoming to California, the calculations are:
 State Population Reps Population Per   Representative Wyoming 568,300 1 568,300 California 37,341,998 53 704,566
So, we can say that each state gets 1 Representative (and 1 electoral vote) for about 650,000 citizens.
That seems (roughly speaking) to be a fair and equal representation.

Let's look at Wyoming and California again.
 State Population Electoral   Votes Population Per   Electoral Vote Wyoming 568,300 3 189,433 California 37,341,998 55 678,945
This means that Wyoming is apportioned 3½ times more electoral votes per citizen than California does! (678,945 ÷ 189,433 = 3½)

Shouldn't all elections adhere to the principle of "one person one vote"? In some states, one person's vote could be worth many times more than the vote of a person from another state.
Looking at the chart below, we see that the ten least-populated states have between 2 to 3½ times more voting power than California!

Yes, the electoral college certainly gives the smaller-populated states an "edge" over the larger-populated ones. Perhaps this is too much of an advantage?

So, now the question is, does the electoral college system require changing or perhaps even total elimination?

 State Population   Rank   Population Electoral    Votes Population Per   Electoral Vote Electoral   VotingPower    ComparedTo   California Wyoming 50       568,300 3 189,433 3.58 District of Columbia ***       601,723 3 200,574 3.39 Vermont 49      630,337 3 210,112 3.23 North Dakota 48      675,905 3 225,302 3.01 Alaska 47       721,523 3 240,508 2.82 Rhode Island 43       1,055,248 4 263,812 2.57 South Dakota 46      819,761 3 273,254 2.48 Delaware 45      900,877 3 300,292 2.26 New Hampshire 42      1,321,446 4 330,362 2.06 Montana 44      994,416 3 331,472 2.05 Maine 41      1,333,074 4 333,269 2.04 Hawaii 40      1,366,862 4 341,716 1.99 Nebraska 38      1,831,824 5 366,365 1.85 West Virginia 37      1,859,814 5 371,963 1.83 Idaho 39      1,573,500 4 393,375 1.73 New Mexico 36      2,067,273 5 413,455 1.64 Nevada 35      2,709,432 6 451,572 1.50 Utah 34      2,770,764 6 461,794 1.47 Kansas 33      2,863,812 6 477,302 1.42 Arkansas 32      2,926,228 6 487,705 1.39 Mississippi 31      2,978,240 6 496,373 1.37 Connecticut 29      3,581,630 7 511,661 1.33 Iowa 30      3,053,788 6 508,965 1.33 South Carolina 24      4,645,977 9 516,220 1.32 Minnesota 21      5,314,880 10 531,488 1.28 Alabama 23      4,802,980 9 533,664 1.27 Oklahoma 28      3,764,880 7 537,840 1.26 Kentucky 26      4,350,606 8 543,826 1.25 Oregon 27      3,848,605 7 549,801 1.23 Washington 13      6,753,370 12 562,781 1.21 Colorado 22      5,044,928 9 560,548 1.21 Wisconsin 20      5,698,232 10 569,823 1.19 Louisiana 25      4,553,964 8 569,246 1.19 Tennessee 17      6,375,429 11 579,584 1.17 Maryland 19      5,789,928 10 578,993 1.17 Arizona 16      6,412,698 11 582,973 1.16 Indiana 15      6,501,582 11 591,053 1.15 Massachusetts 14      6,559,641 11 596,331 1.14 Missouri 18      6,011,480 10 601148 1.13 Georgia 09       9,727,564 16 607,973 1.12 Michigan 08       9,911,622 16 619,476 1.10 Virginia 12       8,037,733 13 618,287 1.10 New Jersey 11       8,807,496 14 629,107 1.08 Pennsylvania 06       12,734,910 20 636,746 1.07 Illinois 05       12,864,384 20 643,219 1.06 Ohio 07       11,568,496 18 642,694 1.06 North Carolina 10       9,565,777 15 637,718 1.06 Florida 04       18,900,783 29 651,751 1.04 Texas 02       25,268,436 38 664,959 1.02 New York 03       19,421,046 29 669,691 1.01 California 01       37,341,998 55 678,945 1.00
1 The 23rd Amendment allows the District of Columbia to be allocated no more electoral votes than the least populous state. (currently 3)

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